Prof Steve Greenwald


Key Publications

  • Phababpha S, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Senggunprai L, Kukongviriyapan V, Settasatian C, Tatsanavivat P, Intharaphet P, Senthong V, Komanasin N, Settasatian N and Greenwald SE (2013). Association of arterial stiffness with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1333049 and metabolic risk factors. Cardiovascular Diabetology vol. 12 
  • Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R and Greenwald S (2013). Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability. Pubmed: Journal of Biomedical Optics vol. 18 (6) 
  • Sun Y, Papin C, Azorin-Peris V, Kalawsky R, Greenwald S and Hu S (2012). Use of ambient light in remote photoplethysmographic systems: comparison between a high-performance camera and a low-cost webcam. Journal of Biomedical Optics vol. 17 (3) 
  • Sun Y, Hu S, Azorin-Peris V, Greenwald S, Chambers J and Zhu Y (2011). Motion-compensated noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to monitor cardiorespiratory status during exercise. Journal of Biomedical Optics vol. 16 (7) 
  • Timmins LH, Wu QF, Yeh AT, Moore JE and Greenwald SE (2010). Structural inhomogeneity and fiber orientation in the inner arterial media. Am J Physiol-Heart C vol. 298 (5), H1537-H1545.  

All Publications

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    • Zhou S, Xu K, Fang Y, Alastruey J, Vennin S, Yang J, Wang J, Xu L, Wang X and Greenwald SE (2024). Patient-specific non-invasive estimation of the aortic blood pressure waveform by ultrasound and tonometry. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Elsevier vol. 247 


    • Li X, Ji L, Zhang R, You H, Xu L, Greenwald SE, Sun Y, Zhang L and Yang B (2023). COACT: Coronary artery centerline tracker. Medical Physics, Wiley 
    • Wang Y, Zhang Y, Xu L, Qi S, Yao Y, Qian W, Greenwald SE and Qi L (2023). TSP-UDANet: two-stage progressive unsupervised domain adaptation network for automated cross-modality cardiac segmentation. Neural Computing and Applications, Springer Nature vol. 35 (30), 22189-22207.  
    • Wang Q, Xu L, Wang L, Yang X, Sun Y, Yang B and Greenwald SE (2023). Automatic coronary artery segmentation of CCTA images using UNet with a local contextual transformer. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers vol. 14 
    • Ri J, Pang N, Bai S, Xu J, Xu L, Ri S, Yao Y and Greenwald SE (2023). Three-dimensional numerical analysis of wall stress induced by asymmetric oscillation of microbubble trains inside micro-vessels. Physics of Fluids, Aip Publishing vol. 35 (1) 


    • Hu S, Greenwald S, Dwyer V, Spigulis J and Guo Y (2022). Editorial: In vivo opto-physiological imaging. Frontiers in Physics, Frontiers vol. 10 
    • Song A, Xu L, Wang L, Wang B, Yang X, Xu B, Yang B and Greenwald SE (2022). Automatic Coronary Artery Segmentation of CCTA Images With an Efficient Feature-Fusion-and-Rectification 3D-UNet. Ieee Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Ieee) vol. 26 (8), 4044-4055.  
    • Shibib L, Al-Qaisi M, Ahmed A, Miras AD, Nott D, Pelling M, Greenwald SE and Guess N (2022). Reversal and Remission of T2DM – An Update for Practitioners. Vascular Health and Risk Management, Taylor & Francis vol. 18, 417-443.  
    • Yao Y, Zhou S, Alastruey J, Hao L, Greenwald SE, Zhang Y and Xu L (2022). Estimation of central pulse wave velocity from radial pulse wave analysis. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Elsevier vol. 219 
    • Xu L, Zhou S, Wang L, Yao Y, Hao L, Qi L, Han H, Mukkamala R and Greenwald SE (2022). Improving the accuracy and robustness of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurement using a simplified tube-load model. Scientific Reports, Springer Nature vol. 12 (1) 
    • Cui H, Wang Z, Yu B, Jiang F, Geng N, Li Y, Xu L, Zheng D, Zhang B, Lu P and Greenwald SE (2022). Statistical Analysis of the Consistency of HRV Analysis Using BCG or Pulse Wave Signals. Sensors, Mdpi vol. 22 (6) 
    • Liu W, Du S, Zhou S, Mei T, Zhang Y, Sun G, Song S, Xu L, Yao Y and Greenwald SE (2022). Noninvasive estimation of aortic pressure waveform based on simplified Kalman filter and dual peripheral artery pressure waveforms. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Elsevier vol. 219 
    • Sun Y, Li X-G, Xu K, Hou J, You H-R, Zhang R-R, Qi M, Zhang L-B, Xu L-S, Greenwald SE and Yang B-Q (2022). Relationship between epicardial fat volume on cardiac CT and atherosclerosis severity in three-vessel coronary artery disease: a single-center cross-sectional study. Bmc Cardiovascular Disorders, Springer Nature vol. 22 (1) 
    • Cao Y, Liu W, Zhang S, Xu L, Zhu B, Cui H, Geng N, Han H and Greenwald SE (2022). Detection and Localization of Myocardial Infarction Based on Multi-Scale ResNet and Attention Mechanism. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers vol. 13 


    • Xu B, Yang B, Xiao J, Song A, Wang B, Wang L, Xu L, Greenwald SE and Yao Y (2021). Estimation of coronary artery movement using a non-rigid registration with global-local structure preservation. Computers in Biology and Medicine, Elsevier vol. 141 
    • Ma C, Lin C, Samuel OW, Guo W, Zhang H, Greenwald S, Xu L and Li G (2021). A Bi-Directional LSTM Network for Estimating Continuous Upper Limb Movement from Surface Electromyography. Ieee Robotics and Automation Letters vol. 6 (4), 7217-7224.  
    • Zhang B, Li H, Xu L, Qi L, Yao Y and Greenwald SE (2021). Noncontact Heart Rate Measurement Using a Webcam, Based on Joint Blind Source Separation and a Skin Reflection Model: For a Wide Range of Imaging Conditions. Journal of Sensors vol. 2021 
    • Li X, Sun Y, Xu L, Greenwald SE, Zhang L, Zhang R, You H and Yang B (2021). Automatic quantification of epicardial adipose tissue volume. Medical Physics, Wiley vol. 48 (8), 4279-4290.  
    • Liu W, Li Z, Wang Y, Song D, Ji N, Xu L, Mei T, Sun Y and Greenwald SE (2021). Aortic pressure waveform reconstruction using a multi-channel Newton blind system identification algorithm. Computers in Biology and Medicine, Elsevier vol. 135 
    • Godinho MSC, Thorpe CT, Greenwald SE and Screen H (2021). Elastase treatment of tendon specifically impacts the mechanical properties of the interfascicular matrix. Acta Biomaterialia, Elsevier 


    • Bard A, Greenwald S and Sarkar S (2020). P.44 Application of an Algorithm Developed for Measuring Gastrointestinal Motility to the Assessment of Arterial Mechanical Properties. Artery Research, Springer Nature vol. 26 (Suppl 1), s66-s67.  
    • Zhu Z, Li J, Zhang S, Geng N, Xu L and Greenwald SE (2020). Quality evaluation of signals collected by portable ECG devices using dimensionality reduction and flexible model integration. Physiological Measurement vol. 41 (10) 
    • Xu L, Zhang Y, Meng L, Li S, Niu L, Greenwald SE, Zhang H and Wang L (2020). Ultrasound Assessment of the Relation between Local Hemodynamic Parameters and Plaque Morphology. Ieee Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Ieee) vol. 8, 145149-145158.  
    • Li Y, Marais L, Khettab H, Quan Z, Aasmul S, Leinders R, Schüler R, Morrissey PE, Greenwald S, Segers P, Vanslembrouck M, Bruno RM, Boutouyrie P, O’Brien P, de Melis M and Baets R (2020). Silicon photonics-based laser Doppler vibrometer array for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. Biomedical Optics Express vol. 11 (7), 3913-3913.  
    • Wang H, Wang L, Sun N, Yao Y, Hao L, Xu L and Greenwald SE (2020). Quantitative Comparison of the Performance of Piezoresistive, Piezoelectric, Acceleration, and Optical Pulse Wave Sensors. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers vol. 10 


    • Petkos K, Koutsoftidis S, Guiho T, Degenaar P, Jackson A, Greenwald SE, Brown P, Denison T and Drakakis EM (2019). A high-performance 8 nV/√Hz 8-channel wearable and wireless system for real-time monitoring of bioelectrical signals. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, Springer Nature vol. 16 (1) 
    • Qi L, Yu H, Xu L, Mpanda RS and Greenwald SE (2019). Robust heart-rate estimation from facial videos using Project_ICA. Physiological Measurement, Iop Publishing vol. 40 (8) 
    • Tommasin D, Caenen A, Verhegghe B, Greenwald S and Segers P (2019). Physics of Within-Tissue Wave Propagation Generated by Pulse Propagation in the Carotid Artery. Applied Sciences-Basel vol. 9 (14) 
    • Mancini V, Tommasin D, Li Y, Reeves J, Baets R, Greenwald S, Segers P and CARDIS consortium (2019). Detecting carotid stenosis from skin vibrations using Laser Doppler Vibrometry - An in vitro proof-of-concept. Plos One vol. 14 (6), e0218317-e0218317.  


    • Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Chu X, Liu Y, Zhang T and Greenwald SE (2018). Evaluation of cardiorespiratory function during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in untreated hypertensive and healthy subjects. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers Media vol. 9 (NOV) 
    • Zhang Y, Qi L, Xu L, Sun X, Liu W, Zhou S, van de Vosse F and Greenwald SE (2018). Effects of exercise modalities on central hemodynamics, arterial stiffness and cardiac function in cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos One, Public Library of Science (Plos) vol. 13 (7) 
    • Gutiérrez‐Arzapalo PY, Rodríguez‐Rodríguez P, Ramiro‐Cortijo D, de Pablo ÁLL, López‐Giménez MR, Condezo‐Hoyos L, Greenwald SE, del Carmen González M and Arribas SM (2018). Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch‐up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta. The Journal of Physiology, Wiley vol. 596 (23), 5791-5806.  
    • Mancini V, Tommasin D, Li Y, Baets R, Greenwald S and Segers P (2018). Can Laser Doppler Vibrometer detect carotid stenosis from skin vibrations? Hydraulic bench tests on patient-specific model. Artery Research, Springer Nature vol. 24 (C) 
    • Tommasin D, Li Y, Reeves J, Baets R, Greenwald S and Segers P (2018). Feasibility study of local pulse wave velocity estimation in the carotid artery with multi-beam Laser Doppler Vibrometer. Artery Research, Springer Nature vol. 24 (C), 129-130.  
    • Marais L, Aasmul S, Baets R, De Melis M, Greenwald SE, Khettab H, Li Y, Prinzen F, Reesink K, Segers P and Boutouyrie P (2018). Non-contact measurement of local carotid and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by Laser Doppler Vibrometry: Validation of a new device against reference techniques in hypertensive patients. Artery Research, Springer Nature vol. 24 (C) 



    • Senaphan K, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Thawornchinsombut S, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan U (2016). Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet. European Journal of Nutrition, Springer Nature vol. 57 (1), 219-230.  
    • Forouhi NG, Menon RK, Sharp SJ, Mannan N, Timms PM, Martineau AR, Rickard AP, Boucher BJ, Chowdhury TA, Griffiths CJ, Greenwald SE, Griffin SJ and Hitman GA (2016). Effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk among people at risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial. Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, Wiley vol. 18 (4), 392-400.  


    • Senaphan K, Kukongviriyapan U, Sangartit W, Pakdeechote P, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P, Greenwald SE and Kukongviriyapan V (2015). Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet. Nutrients, Mdpi vol. 7 (8), 6446-6464.  
    • Brewin MP, Birch MJ, Mehta DJ, Reeves JW, Shaw S, Kruse C, Whiteman JR, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Banks HT and Greenwald SE (2015). Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Springer Nature vol. 43 (10), 2587-2596.  


    • Sangartit W, Kukongviriyapan U, Donpunha W, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Surawattanawan P and Greenwald SE (2014). Tetrahydrocurcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Hypertension, Raised Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Remodeling in Mice., Editors: Gupta S. Plos One, Public Library of Science vol. 9 (12), e114908-e114908.  
    • Boonla O, Kukongviriyapan U, Pakdeechote P, Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P, Prachaney P and Greenwald SE (2014). Curcumin improves endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in 2K-1C hypertensive rats by raising nitric oxide availability and reducing oxidative stress. Nitric Oxide vol. 42, 44-53.  
    • Brewin MP, Srodon PD, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). Carotid atherosclerotic plaque characterisation by measurement of ultrasound sound speed in vitro at high frequency, 20 MHz. Ultrasonics vol. 54 (2), 428-441.  
    • Louis-Auguste J, Greenwald S, Simuyandi M, Soko R, Banda R and Kelly P (2014). High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults. Bmc Gastroenterol vol. 14 
    • Gardiner HM, Matsui H, Roughton M, Greenwald SE, Diemert A, Taylor MJO and Hecher K (2014). Cardiac function in 10-year-old twins following different fetal therapies for twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology vol. 43 (6), 652-657.  
    • Banks HT, Birch MJ, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Maischak M, Shaw S and Whiteman JR (2014). High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling. International Journal For Numerical Methods in Engineering vol. 98 (2), 131-156.  
    • Banks HT, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Shaw S, Whiteman J, Brewin MP, Greenwald SE and Birch MJ (2014). MODEL VALIDATION FOR A NONINVASIVE ARTERIAL STENOSIS DETECTION PROBLEM. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering vol. 11 (3), 427-448.  
    • Shcherbakova DA, Papadacci C, Swillens A, Caenen A, De Bock S, Saey V, Chiers K, Tanter M, Greenwald SE, Pernot M and Segers P (2014). Supersonic Shear Wave Imaging to Assess Arterial Nonlinear Behavior and Anisotropy: Proof of Principle via Ex Vivo Testing of the Horse Aorta. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Sage Publications vol. 2014 


    • Hoonjan B, Dulai R, Ahmed Z, Lucey A, Twycross-Lewis R, Morrissey D and Greenwald SE (2013). Comparing the effect of moderate intensity exercise on arterial stiffness in resistance trained athletes, endurance trained athletes and sedentary controls: A cross-sectional observational study. Artery Research vol. 7 (3-4), 216-221.  
    • Greenwald SE, Banks HT, Birch MJ, Brewin MP, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Kruse C, Mehta D, Reeves J, Shaw S and Whiteman JR (2013). Acoustic localisation of coronary artery stenosis: Wave propagation in soft tissue mimicking gels. Artery Research, Springer Nature vol. 7 (3-4) 

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